jude hunter

jude hunter

The journey of Queso, my programming language


This is the story of how queso, my dream programming language came to be, how it evolved, and what comes next.

Since as far as I can remember, I’ve been fascinated by the magic ways programming languages are turned into something computers can understand.

While I’m definitely not a systems programmer, this fascination turned out to be a great pastime. There’s just something incredibly stimulating in the area of compiler theory.

One rainy night during my high school senior year, I was feeling particularly curious. I decided to give in to my then-unfulfilled desire to create my own programming language.

The objective was simple – create something that solved the many gripes I’ve had with other mainstream languages. Soon enough, I realized it wasn’t going to be as easy as I thought. I designed a rough syntax of queso, my dream programming language. It featured some functional and event-driven programming, the everything-is-an-expression notion, and of course some funky features no one in their right mind would ever think of using.

Here’s a snippet of one of those first iterations of queso from 2020:

fn filterSpicySalsas(salsas):
  salsas.filter(salsa: salsa.isSpicy);

let salsas = [
  //object literals
  #[name = "fresca", isSpicy = false],
  #[name = "habanero", isSpicy = true],
  #[name = "verde", isSpicy = false],

trace salsas |> filterSpicySalsas();
// prints [#[name = "habanero", isSpicy = true]]

let evtLoaded = new Event();
emit evtLoaded -> ..fetch(endpoint);
on evtLoaded -> refreshGUI;

Function declarations had a colon :. That’s because the function body didn’t have to be a block, but just any expression. Basically like lambdas. Then, some syntax sugar for event emitters and listeners, and async/await.

Other than that, nothing too revolutionary, rather just experimentation. For those more curious about the more unusual parts of queso, have a look at the GitHub repository at the time.

Like many amateur language hackers, I started by reading the famous Crafting Interpreters online e-book. The book describes the design and implementation of the lox language.

So how does it work?

For the uninitiated, a typical interpreted programming language has at least these stages in the pipeline. Feel free to skip below if you’re already familiar with this.

  • Lexer — transforms the source code into a list of tokens. For instance, one could have an identifier token for any names, like variables; certain keywords, such as if, true, let; and different tokens for the many operators.
  • Parser — reads the list of tokens and assembles an Abstract Syntax Tree based on a set of precedence and grammar rules. A simple example of a parser is a PEMDAS calculator. The operation 2 + 3 * 4 has to first apply multiplication, and then addition. This would be represented by the following tree:
 / \
2   *
   / \
  3   4

To then evaluate that tree, we could build a simple tree-walking interpreter like so:

type Node = {
  type: 'add' | 'mul',
  left: Node,
  right: Node,
} | number;

const eval = (node: Node) => {
  if (typeof node === 'number')
    return node;

  const left = eval(node.left);
  const right = eval(node.right);

  if (node.type === 'add')
    return left + right;

  if (node.type === 'mul')
    return left * right;

Let’s try running that interpreter for our PEMDAS example:

  type: 'add',
  left: 2,
  right: {
    type: 'mul',
    left: 3,
    right: 4,
// returns 14
  • Compiler — turns that AST into some target representation that can be evaluated in a performant way. For compiled languages, like C, this would be assembly. For interpreted languages, this could be bytecode.
  • VM — in the case of interpreted languages, the VM acts as an artificial processor. It reads bytecode instructions just as a processor reads machine code. It might also have a stack and a heap.

Queso Mk. 1 — a tree-walking interpreter

The first part of the book goes through building a tree-walking interpreter written in Java. I followed along with C# instead, because I knew that the need to translate the concepts into a different language would accelerate my learning. And also because Java is... Java 💀.

In no time, I had a working prototype of queso. And by prototype, I really do mean prototype. If memory serves, I was able to program such things as the Fibonacci sequence, and it even had a REPL. The performance was quite disappointing, which was to be expected from a tree-walking interpreter.

The next step was obvious –

Queso Mk. 2 — a bytecode interpreter

Part two of the book jumps deep into C territory. Once again, I chose a different language – to kill two birds with one stone, I decided to learn Rust, as I already had some prior knowledge about low-level programming.

This time, the language had a much neater implementation. Well maybe apart from how bad my Rust code quality was. Anyhoo, it had distinct stages and passes, as well as more thought out representations.

Using Rust however meant that I couldn’t follow the book nearly as closely anymore. A lot of C obscurities simply don’t exist in Rust, not to mention that one has to adapt an entirely new mindset to program with the borrow checker in mind. I also took advantage of some of the Rust built-ins, such as strings and hashmaps. Those were implemented by hand in the book.

The break.

My final high school exams were coming up, and we were sent home as the pandemic was ramping up. Reluctantly, I started studying. This inevitably meant the death of queso, at least temporarily. I was admittedly getting burnt-out from the amount of newfound programming knowledge anyway.

I wouldn’t come back to queso for well over two years, when I had a spark of inspiration. Queso would be transformed both in its design and implementation. An idea for something novel, something interesting yet again.

Say hi to –

Queso Mk. 3 — a WebAssembly compiler

A lot has happened in the meantime. We took a gap year, and started studying. Fast forward to now, roughly one year after the move is when I had the realization queso could become something more than an experiment.

I have always been a web developer. To me, the web is everything and anything I want it to be; a boundless playground. I first learnt HTML from an obscure website around 2011. The incredible amount of innovation is also what keeps me enthusiastic about it.

Speaking of, enter WebAssembly. A special binary format for a Virtual Machine that’s typically run inside of a browser, next to JavaScript. Well, the name speaks for itself – it’s assembly, for the web. The thing is, it’s not just for the web. WASM is not inherently tied to the browser, or anything at all really. It’s a universal format that any language or application could compile to, and which is portable, i.e. it could be executed on any host environment capable of reading the format.

For instance, you could run WebAssembly binaries inside of a native JavaScript runtime, such as Node.js or Deno, or even use a standalone runtime, such as Wasmtime or Wasmer, which makes it great for application distribution and deployment, as you don’t need to install your language-specific tools on your target machines, the way you do with many interpreted languages.

WebAssembly should theoretically provide close-to-native performance, while being relatively high-level, and sandboxed. In fact, a WebAssembly module does not have access to any native functions at all. To provide it with external functionality, the host environment must first expose it.

Due to its sandboxing, we already see hosting providers using WebAssembly instead of spinning up whole Docker containers. If everything goes right, it could become the universal format for language compilation.

Something JVM wished it was.

I digress. My growing interest in WebAssembly made me recognize the potential that queso could have. I began redesigning the whole language with familiarity, usability, and flexibility in mind, while carefully crafting a set of unique features that make queso, queso. I also created the first queso specification, which provides a degree of consistency across the project. I should probably keep it updated though.

Let’s look at how queso has changed.

let filterSpicySalsas =
  salsas -> salsas.>filter(salsa -> salsa.isSpicy);

let salsas = [
  {name: `fresca`, isSpicy: false},
  {name: `roja`, isSpicy: true},
  {name: `habanero`, isSpicy: true},

let spicySalsas = salsas |> filterSpicySalsas;

    .>join(`, `)
// prints habanero, roja

There is no function declarations, it’s all just variables and data. I opted for the more common -> operator for lambdas, especially since : was too restrictive in terms of parsing. Object literals now use the standard {} braces, instead of the unusual #[]. All strings are multiline and interpolated. Immutability by default.

A new kind of functionality is the dot-pipe operator. In the above snippet, filter is not actually a method of List. Rather, it’s a function with the signature

  list: List<T>,
  predicate: (item: T) -> bool
) -> List<T>

Traditionally, we could represent that same operation with:

filter(salsas, salsa -> salsa.isSpicy);
// or with the pipe operator
salsas |> x -> filter(x, salsa -> salsa.isSpicy);

Thus, the dot-pipe operator .> pipes the left operand into the right operand’s first argument. I believe it’s a good way to marry FP with OOP, without the downsides of the latter.

One particular pattern that’s ever-present in mainstream programming languages is short lambdas that use the first argument to do some slight transformation. This leads to the programmer having to type that argument’s name twice:

// first example
salsas.>filter( salsa -> salsa.isSpicy )

// second example
spicySalsas.>map( x -> x.name );

Notice the salsa -> salsa part. In queso, this could be expressed as simply as

// first example
salsas.>filter( _.isSpicy )

// second example
spicySalsas.>map( _.name )

The _ placeholder operator curries a function. Operators in queso are just syntactic sugar for functions. In this case, _.isSpicy would translate to x -> dotAccess(x, 'isSpicy').

For a more in-depth overview of the language, see the latest readme file.

The implementation

To aide in development speed, I decided to (re)implement the whole language in TypeScript. This felt good considering that WebAssembly is already tied to the JavaScript ecosystem. The compiler could even be used as a JS library.

I began researching WebAssembly. To my despair, the quality of the documentation was – to put it lightly – suboptimal. That is, if I could even find any documentation. The main reference that exists is the WebAssembly specification, which is likely too formal for many.

All this came as a big surprise, coming from web development, which is an area often characterized by exceptional quality of documentation. I had to do a lot of manual experimentation to figure out how everything worked.

Using the binaryen.js library seemed to be the path of least resistance. Binaryen is a C toolkit for generating and optimizing WebAssembly through simple function calls. binaryen.js is a port of Binaryen for JavaScript. The catch is the port is machine generated. It has outdated typings, minimal documentation, and infinite quirks. At one point, I could not figure out how to call a function correctly, or even if it was my fault or the library’s.

The low quality of tooling forced me to start a sub-project –


An alternative to binaryen.js, with high quality documentation, strong typing (with datatype validation built into the type system), full test coverage, and a focus on usability for both compilation and hand-writing of WebAssembly.

The purpose of wazum would be to generate WAT (a textual format of WASM), and then pass it behind the scenes to Binaryen for optimization.

Continue reading about wazum here

I would tell you more, but I’m afraid we’ve reached the present time. I can only speculate –

What’s next?

I want to provide a great experience for potential users of wazum. That might mean I would have to put queso on the backburner until the DX of wazum is where I want it to be. Once ready, I will move onto the finalization of the queso compiler.

Thanks for reading.
jude hunter
Front-end engineer, advocate of free-as-in-freedom software and an active social progressivist
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